Oracle Database: SQL and Pl/SQL Fundamentals
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Oracle University



Oracle Database: SQL and PL/SQL Fundamentals


5 Days
What you will learn

This course is designed to deliver the fundamentals of SQL and PL/SQL along with the benefits of the programming

languages using Oracle Database technology. In this course participants learn the concepts of relational databases.

Additionally the participants are provided with the essential SQL skills that allow them to write queries against single and

multiple tables, manipulate data in tables, and create database objects. The usage of single row functions to customize

output, how to invoke conversion functions and conditional expressions are covered. The use of group functions to

report aggregated data is also included.

Additionally students learn to create PL/SQL blocks of application code that can be shared by multiple forms, reports,

and data management applications. Participants also learn to create anonymous PL/SQL blocks, stored procedures and

functions. Participants get to learn about declaring identifiers and trapping exceptions. Demonstrations and hands-on

practice reinforce the fundamental concepts.

Participants use Oracle SQL Developer to develop these program units. SQL*Plus and JDeveloper are available as

optional tools.

This is appropriate for a 10g and 11g audience. There are minor changes between 10g and 11g features in SQL.


Application Developers

Forms Developer

Functional Implementer

PL/SQL Developer

Portal Developer

Reports Developer

Technical Consultant


Required Prerequisites

Familiarity with data processing concepts and techniques

Familiarity with programming concepts

Course Objectives

Use PL/SQL programming constructs and conditionally control code flow (loops, control structures, and explicit cursors).

Use cursors to process rows.

Identify the major structural components of the Oracle Database 11g.

Retrieve row and column data from tables with the SELECT statement.

Create reports of sorted and restricted data.

Employ SQL functions to generate and retrieve customized data.

Display data from multiple tables using the ANSI SQL 99 JOIN syntax.

Create reports of aggregated data.

Run data definition language (DDL) statements to create and manage schema objects.

Run data manipulation statements (DML) to update data in the Oracle Database.

Design PL/SQL anonymous block that execute efficiently.

Describe the features and syntax of PL/SQL.

Handle runtime errors.

Describe stored procedures and functions.

Course Topics


Overview of Oracle Database 11g and related products

Overview of relational database management concepts and terminologies

Introduction to SQL and its development environments

The HR schema and the tables used in this course

Oracle Database documentation and additional resources

Retrieve Data using the SQL SELECT Statement

List the capabilities of SQL SELECT statements

Generate a report of data from the output of a basic SELECT statement

Use arithmetic expressions and NULL values in the SELECT statement

Invoke Column aliases

Concatenation operator, literal character strings, alternative quote operator, and the DISTINCT keyword

Display the table structure using the DESCRIBE command

Restricted and Sorted Data

Write queries with a WHERE clause to limit the output retrieved

Describe the comparison operators and logical operators

Describe the rules of precedence for comparison and logical operators

Usage of character string literals in the WHERE clause

Write queries with an ORDER BY clause

Sort the output in descending and ascending order

Substitution Variables

Usage of Single-Row Functions to Customize Output

List the differences between single row and multiple row functions

Manipulate strings using character functions

Manipulate numbers with the ROUND, TRUNC, and MOD functions

Perform arithmetic with date data

Manipulate dates with the DATE functions

Conversion Functions and Conditional Expressions

Describe implicit and explicit data type conversion

Describe the TO_CHAR, TO_NUMBER, and TO_DATE conversion functions

Nesting multiple functions

Apply the NVL, NULLIF, and COALESCE functions to data

Usage of conditional IF THEN ELSE logic in a SELECT statement

Aggregated Data Using the Group Functions

Usage of the aggregation functions in SELECT statements to produce meaningful reports

Describe the AVG, SUM, MIN, and MAX function

How to handle Null Values in a group function?

Divide the data in groups by using the GROUP BY clause

Exclude groups of date by using the HAVING clause

Display Data From Multiple Tables

Write SELECT statements to access data from more than one table

Join Tables Using SQL:1999 Syntax

View data that does not meet a join condition by using outer joins

Join a table to itself by using a self join

Create Cross Joins

Usage of Subqueries to Solve Queries

Use a Subquery to Solve a Problem

Single-Row Subqueries

Group Functions in a Subquery

Multiple-Row Subqueries

Use the ANY and ALL Operator in Multiple-Row Subqueries

Use the EXISTS Operator

SET Operators

Describe the SET operators

Use a SET operator to combine multiple queries into a single query

Describe the UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, and MINUS Operators

Use the ORDER BY Clause in Set Operations

Data Manipulation

Add New Rows to a Table

Change the Data in a Table

Use the DELETE and TRUNCATE Statements

How to save and discard changes with the COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements

Implement Read Consistency

Describe the FOR UPDATE Clause

DDL Statements to Create and Manage Tables

Categorize Database Objects

Create Tables

Describe the data types

Understand Constraints

Create a table using a subquery

How to alter a table?

How to drop a table?

Other Schema Objects

Create, modify, and retrieve data from a view

Perform Data manipulation language (DML) operations on a view

How to drop a view?

Create, use, and modify a sequence

Create and drop indexes

Create and drop synonyms

Introduction to PL/SQL

PL/SQL Overview

List the benefits of PL/SQL Subprograms

Overview of the Types of PL/SQL blocks

Create a Simple Anonymous Block

Generate the Output from a PL/SQL Block

PL/SQL Identifiers

List the different Types of Identifiers in a PL/SQL subprogram

Usage of the Declarative Section to Define Identifiers

Use of variables to store data

Scalar Data Types

%TYPE Attribute

Bind Variables

Sequences in PL/SQL Expressions

Write Executable Statements

Basic PL/SQL Block Syntax Guidelines

How to comment code?

SQL Functions in PL/SQL

Data Type Conversion

Nested Blocks

Operators in PL/SQL

Interaction with the Oracle Server

SELECT Statements in PL/SQL to Retrieve data

Data Manipulation in the Server Using PL/SQL

The SQL Cursor concept

Learn to use SQL Cursor Attributes to Obtain Feedback on DML

How to save and discard transactions?

Control Structures

Conditional processing Using IF Statements

Conditional processing Using CASE Statements

Simple Loop Statement

While Loop Statement

For Loop Statement

The Continue Statement

Usage of Composite Data Types

PL/SQL Records

The %ROWTYPE Attribute

Insert and Update with PL/SQL Records

Associative Arrays (INDEX BY Tables)

INDEX BY Table Methods

INDEX BY Table of Records

Explicit Cursors

Understand Explicit Cursors

Declare the Cursor

How to open the Cursor?

Fetching data from the Cursor

How to close the Cursor?

Cursor FOR loop

Explicit Cursor Attributes


Exception Handling

What are Exceptions?

Handle Exceptions with PL/SQL

Trap Predefined Oracle Server Errors

Trap Non-Predefined Oracle Server Errors

Trap User-Defined Exceptions

Propagate Exceptions


Stored Procedures and Functions

What are Stored Procedures and Functions?

Differentiate between anonymous blocks and subprograms

Create a Simple Procedure

Create a Simple Procedure with IN parameter

Create a Simple Function

Execute a Simple Procedure

Execute a Simple Function





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